MAGIS Home  MAGIS: Help Page Clicking   on a page, pops up context sensitive help.
  Welcome to the MAGIS Help Page!
 

MAGIS (pronounced may-jis) is an acronym for Mediterranean Archaeology GIS. MAGIS is an on-line inventory of regional survey projects in the greater Mediterranean. Archaeologists, historians and other scholars of the ancient Mediterranean can search or browse for surveys, access detailed information and bibliography about them, and map their distribution. Note that MAGIS contains survey metadata (information about the projects), not actual survey data.

Users may interact with MAGIS through three main components, specifically:

  • Spatial Search — Allows users to spatially browse for surveys by interacting with a map of the Mediterranean Basin.
  • Database Search — Allows users to search for surveys by submitting querys to the CGMA database.
  • Data Entry — Allows users to submit archaeological survey data for inclusion in the CGMA database.

Note that due to the fact that different browsers render objects differently, the images included in the help sections below may not exactly match the images that you see on your screen.



Browser Support Browser Support
 

The MAGIS system should be viewable using most recent web browsers.

The following is a list of recommended browsers on which the MAGIS web application should display properly. If you experience a display issue using one of the following browsers, please let us know.

  • Internet Explorer 6.0+
    • Known Bug: The "Spatial Search Results" page does not display in Internet Explorer
  • Mozilla FireFox 1.5+
  • Safari 1.3+

Finally, for MAGIS to function properly, please make sure the following is true for your browser:

  • Pop-up windows are not blocked.
  • JavaScript is enabled.



Spatial Search Spatial Search
  MAGIS Spatial Search Page
  The MAGIS Spatial Search page presents the user with tools to graphically poll the CGMA database for information. Each of the different sections of the Spatial Search graphical user interface is described below.
  Map Size:
 
 

Map Size: The user can set the size of the base map image by selecting the desired option from this single select menu. The five map size options are:

  • Extra Small (390 x 240 pixels)
  • Small (520 x 320 pixels)
  • Medium (650 x 400 pixels)
  • Large (975 x 600 pixels)
  • Extra Large (1300 x 800 pixels)
The map size option defaults to Small so that users with slower Internet connections will be able to enter the Spatial Search page with little or no delay.

  Navigation:
 
 

The set of three radio buttons in the "Navigation" pallette determines the action taken by the system when the user clicks within the MAGIS base map (See MAGIS Map below). By default the "Zoom In" radio button is checked.

Center Map: If the "Center Map" radio button is checked, clicking on the base map will re-center the map relative to the selected location. Note that MAGIS will not allow the basemap to pull away from the display frame. Therefore in extreme situations (i.e., selecting a location near a map edge), the location clicked may not end up in the center of the map frame.

Zoom In: In this mode, clicking on the base map will select a survey of interest and set the “center” location for zooming in on a particular region. If the Set Zoom Center radio button is checked, clicking on the base map will only set the zoom center. The second option will allow users to quickly navigate to a region of interest by omitting the database access step necessary to search for surveys relative to the selected location. Regardless of which of the two radio buttons is active, clicking on the base map will automatically update the Latitude and Longitude text fields of the Current Location (lower right). Note that the current location is also the current zoom center.

Zoom Out: In this mode, clicking on the base map will select a survey of interest and set the “center” location for zooming in on a particular region. If the Set Zoom Center radio button is checked, clicking on the base map will only set the zoom center. The second option will allow users to quickly navigate to a region of interest by omitting the database access step necessary to search for surveys relative to the selected location. Regardless of which of the two radio buttons is active, clicking on the base map will automatically update the Latitude and Longitude text fields of the Current Location (lower right). Note that the current location is also the current zoom center.

Quick Zoom to Zone: In this mode, clicking on the base map will select a survey of interest and set the “center” location for zooming in on a particular region. If the Set Zoom Center radio button is checked, clicking on the base map will only set the zoom center. The second option will allow users to quickly navigate to a region of interest by omitting the database access step necessary to search for surveys relative to the selected location. Regardless of which of the two radio buttons is active, clicking on the base map will automatically update the Latitude and Longitude text fields of the Current Location (lower right). Note that the current location is also the current zoom center.

Quick Zoom to Country: In this mode, clicking on the base map will select a survey of interest and set the “center” location for zooming in on a particular region. If the Set Zoom Center radio button is checked, clicking on the base map will only set the zoom center. The second option will allow users to quickly navigate to a region of interest by omitting the database access step necessary to search for surveys relative to the selected location. Regardless of which of the two radio buttons is active, clicking on the base map will automatically update the Latitude and Longitude text fields of the Current Location (lower right). Note that the current location is also the current zoom center.

  Selection:
 
 

Select Survey(s): If the "Select Survey(s)" radio button is checked, clicking within the red survey extent rectangles will pop-up a new window with information about all projects in the CGMA database whose geographic data contain the selected point. Please note that not all projects in the CGMA database have geographic (or spatial) information entered. Therefore, not all projects in the database can be displayed on the MAGIS Spatial Search base map. Only those survey projects that include spatial information can be displayed/selected on/from the Spatial Search base map. Also note that the Survey Projects data layer must be on (checked) to select survey projects from the base map.

  Layers:
 
 

The "Layers" pallette allows users to turn data layers and labels on/off and thus determines what gets rendered in the MAGIS base map. Checking a box beneath the eye icon will cause the corresponding layer to be displayed on the base map. Likewise, unchecking a box beneath the eye icon will cause the corresponding layer to be removed from the base map. If a data layer is currently visible on the base map, the user may turn on labels for that layer (if they exist) by checking the corresponding box under the "l". Please note that users must left click the "REFRESH MAP" button in order for layer changes to take effect. By default, the MAGIS "Elevation" and "Modern Political Districts" layers are turned on.

The MAGIS data layers available for display are as follows:

Elevation: Digital elevation model (DEM) of the Mediterranean Basin. (data type: grid)

Zone Boundaries: Outlines of the six CGMA zones, Black Sea, Central Europe, Eastern Mediterranean, Near East, North Africa, and Western Mediterranean. (data type: polygon)

Modern Political Districts: Country boundaries. (data type: polygon)

Survey Projects: Rectangular extents of projects in the CGMA database. (data type: polygon)

Rivers: Major rivers in the Mediterranean Basin. (data type: line)

Lakes: Major lakes in the Mediterranean Basin. (data type: polygon)

National Capitals: National capitals in the Mediterranean Basin. (data type: point)

Modern Major Cities: Major cities in the Mediterranean Basin. (data type: point)

Ancient Major Cities: The Ancient Cities layer is currently not available.

  Reset Map:
 
 

Reset Map: Left clicking the "Refresh Map" button will redisplay the MAGIS base map using its default parameters.

  MAGIS Map:
 
 

Base Map The base map on the MAGIS Spatial Search page is the main medium for interaction with the Spatial Search component. It is also where the geographical results of user's interactions are displayed.

Reference Map The reference map shows the user the current extent of the base map relative to the entire Mediterranean Basin area. It also allows the user to quickly recenter the base map to a location outside of the current base map extent. Left clicking in the reference map will recenter the base map.

Scale Bar The scale bar shows the scale of the current base map.

Information Box The information box contains brief statements instructing the user on the use of the Spatial Search component.



Google™ Earth Browse Google™ Earth Browse
 

Clicking the Google™ Earth Browse button downloads an automatically updating .kmz file that, when opened in Google™ Earth 5.0 or later, allows users to browse and interact with all survey projects in the MAGIS database for which spatial (coordinate) data are available.

 
 

Once the .kmz file has been saved to a user's system, it will regularly and automatically query the CGMA/MAGIS site for any project changes made to the MAGIS database and make corresponding updates in the user's Google&trade Earth session. These queries are performed each time the file is opened in Google™ Earth or every 24 hours if the file remains active in Google&trade Earth. Thus, it is not necessary to repeatedly download the file. The file need only be downloaded once.

This .kmz file will display in earlier versions of Google™ Earth, but Google™ Earth 5.0 or later is needed to fully interact with the survey project features.

 
 

In Google™ Earth 5.0 and later, users can click on polygon features in the 3D Viewer window to pop up the description balloon for that feature. In versions prior to 5.0, only point features will pop up their description balloon when clicked on in the 3D Viewer window. To access the description balloons of other feature types (e.g., polygons), the user must click on the feature in the Places panel. In the Places panel MAGIS projects are organized in folders by country to aid users using pre-5.0 versions of Google™ Earth in locating project descriptions.

The description balloons for MAGIS project features contain the unique CGMA identifier for the project, the project name, and a link to the corresponding Detailed Project Description page in MAGIS.



Database Search Database Search
  MAGIS Search Page
  The Database Search page allows the user to query the database for a list of surveys that match given criteria. There are multiple parts that comprise the MAGIS Database Search page. These are Search Projects, Browse Projects, and Sample Projects. Each is described detail below.
  Search Projects:
 
 

Search Projects: Users can build detailed queries to search projects in the database using the Search Projects component. Users must

for each row of the search query.

  Search Query Fields:
 
 

Users begin building the database search query by selecting a field on which to search. MAGIS offers the user 23 different search fields, specifically:
Text Fields   Numeric Fields
ALL    CGMA ID    Chronology: Start Year
Chronology: Period    Project Name    Chronology: End Year
Climate    Project Description    Operation: Start Year
Geology    Project Questions    Operation: End Year
Topography    Principal Investigator     
Methodology    Zone     
Special Studies    Country     
Project Languages    Province     
Project Sponsors    Location     
Ancient Region          
ALL is a special text field that results in a keyword search being performed on text fields.

  Search Query Operators:
 

Users select an operator based on the type of the search field (i.e., text or numeric).

 
 

Text Operators:

  • Exactly Matches– Selects project if field content exactly matches the user entered text (character order and white space; case is ignored).
  • Contains– Selects project if field content contains the user entered text (character order and white space; case is ignored).
  • Does Not Contain– Selects project if field content does not contain the user entered text (character order and white space; case is ignored).
  • Begins With– Selects project if field content begins with the user entered text (character order and white space; case is ignored).
  • Ends With– Selects project if field content ends with the user entered text (character order and white space; case is ignored).

 
 

Numeric Operators:

  • = (Equal To)– Selects project if field content is equal to the user entered value.
  • != (Not Equal To)– Selects project if field content is not equal to the user entered value.
  • < (Less Than)– Selects project if field content is strictly less than the user entered value.
  • <= (Less Than or Equal To)– Selects project if field content is less than or equal to the user entered value.
  • > (Greater Than)– Selects project if field content is strictly greater than the user entered value.
  • >= (Greater Than or Equal To)– Selects project if field content is greater than or equal to the user entered value.

  Search Query Text:
 
 

Users should enter the alphabetic or numeric text to which field content is to be compared in the text field.

  Search Query Logical Operator:
 
 

Logical/Other Operators:

  • Or– Joins the current query row/criterion with the next row/criterion using a logical OR operator.
  • And– Joins the current query row/criterion with the next row/criterion using a logical AND operator.

    For Example:

 
A B C A
OR
B
A
AND
B
A
OR
B
AND
C
A
AND
B
OR
C
A
AND
B
AND
C
blue
cyan
green
magenta
red
yellow
black
blue
green
red
white
cyan
magenta
yellow
black
blue
cyan
green
magenta
red
yellow
white
blue
green
red
cyan
magenta
yellow
blue
cyan
green
magenta
red
yellow
 
 

  • Add Row– Adds a new search criteria row after the current row.
  • Delete Row– Deletes the corresponding search criteria row.
  • End– Denotes the end of the search criteria.

  Browse Projects:
 
 

Browse Projects: Users can quickly find projects for a particular geographical region (Country, Zone, or Mediterranean) using the Browse Projects. Left clicking the "+" or "-" icon to the left of an entry will expand/collapse the entry. Left clicking on the text of an entry (with the exception of "Country" and "Zone") will query the database for all projects within the geographical area defined by the entry selected. For example, if the user left clicks on "Tunisia", all projects in the CGMA database that were undertaken in Tunisia will be returned. Similarly, if the user left clicks on "All", all projects in the CGMA database will be returned.

  Sample Projects:
 
 

Sample Projects: MAGIS randomly selects five projects from the CGMA database and displays the project name and country in this box. Left clicking on one of the projects will display the project details page for the selected project.



Data Entry Data Entry
  MAGIS Data Submission/Data Entry Page
  There are multiple steps on the MAGIS data submission/entry forms. Each is discussed in detail below. Please follow formatting instructions indicated on the Data Submission/Data Entry form. On the form, a red asterisk (*) next to a field designates it as a required field. In the help text below, required fields are indicated by red text. (Please note that the required fields are the minimum amount of data that can be entered for a project record.)
  Project Status: (Not applicable for the MAGIS Data Submission Page)
 
 

Project Status: Please indicate what stage the data entry is in; add explanatory notes as necessary.

  General Data:
 
 

Project Name: The name self-identified in project publications or publicity, or, if none is available, a specific and descriptive designator that clearly denotes the project.

Project Website(s): The complete and accurate URL. Double-check its validity by pasting it into an open browser window. Maximum of five.

Project Description: A several-sentence summary of the nature of the project. If possible, quote this from a project publication. If so, use quotation marks and be sure to cite its source by using the author-date-page(s) form of its entry in the bibliography [e.g.: Mills 1983, 170] or the relevant website.

Project Sponsors: As identified in publications or publicity. May include educational institutions, foundations, government agencies, funding agencies, corporations, private donors, etc. In other words, the expressly mentioned individuals or groups that made the project possible. Maximum of five.

Dates of Operation: Calendar years within which the project has been in operation. If the project is ongoing, leave the ‘Stop’ field blank and mark the ‘To Present’ box.

Project Languages: All languages in which project publications are written. Maximum of five.

Metadata Sources: Indicate the author-date form of the bibliography entries [e.g.: Mills 1983] consulted when mining the metadata for this project record.

  Geographical Data:
 
 

Zone: Choose from the pull-down list or let MAGIS set this field automatically when you select the Country.

Country: Choose from the pull-down list. Note that MAGIS follows the ISO 3166-1-alpha-2 code for its country code abbreviations (which serve as the prefixes for CGMA ID numbers): http://www.iso.org/iso/country_codes/iso_3166_code_lists/english_country_names_and_code_elements.htm

Province: If known, choose from the pull-down list that appears after selecting the Country.

Location: Write in any other specific town, basin, river valley or some other geographic designator that locates the project more specifically.

Ancient Region(s): Using the Barrington Atlas of the Ancient World, write in the ancient region(s) (usually denoted in capital letters in that atlas) that covered the project area. Maximum of five.

  Principal Investigators:
 
 

Investigator Name, Address, E-mail, and Phone/Fax: Check project publications or publicity, consult university web-pages, or use Google™ to locate the individuals. Check existing records to make sure information is accurate and up-to-date. Use self-identified information whenever possible. Add as many as are listed as principal authors in publications or noted as project directors in project publicity (add investigators by clicking on the ‘Add Investigator’ button at left). For phone and fax numbers, try to include the country code and city/area code.

  Project Map:
 
 

Project Vertices: Preferably, the submitter e-mails a good-quality .jpg image of a topographic map with the survey area clearly marked (or a path/polygon marked in a Google™Earth .kmz or .kml file), to: cgma@depauw.edu, and one longitude/latitude coordinate pair that will enable us to locate the area roughly on the globe. Regardless of the system used by the project, coordinates can be converted to decimal degrees latitude/longitude using the WGS84 datum. Free software like TatukGIS Coordinate Calculator converts coordinates, datums, and projections; for more information, see: http://www.tatukgis.com/products/Calculator.aspx. There are also web utilities like UTM Interface to Google Maps ( http://pages.globetrotter.net/roule/utmgoogle.htm) that are helpful in calculating decimal degree placemarks for Google Earth.

For MAGIS personnel: use Google™Earth (http://earth.google.com/) to locate the survey area and boundaries by carefully placing, rotating, scaling and adjusting a provided or published map. Be sure to choose ‘degrees’ (which produces decimal degrees) instead of the default ‘degrees, minutes, seconds’ in Google™Earth Options/Preferences. If no map is available, estimate the survey area based on published descriptions, and note this estimation in the ‘Source of Map Data’ field (below). Once the map is ‘rubber-sheeted’ to Google™Earth, draw a polygon that traces the boundary of the survey area. Then, right-click on the drawn polygon in the ‘Places’ list in Google™Earth, and choose ‘Copy’. Paste the resulting .kml code in the Filemaker ‘MAGISProjectCoords’ database, and run the ‘magis coords script’ that will format the coordinate pairs properly for MAGIS. Two points is the minimum standard that will allow MAGIS to draw a rectangle. Finally, right-click on the drawn polygon in the ‘Places’ list in Google™ Earth, and choose ‘Save As’. Label the file with the CGMA ID #, and save it as a .kml file. This file will be used to calculate ‘Project Area’ (below).

With the release of MAGIS version 1.3, MAGIS personnel can upload project Google Earth files via the Data Entry page.

Elevation Range: Input the minimum and maximum elevation (meters above sea level) for the project area in project publications or publicity, or, using Google™Earth, mouse over the area to gain approximate elevation limits (the Tilt feature can assist; again, Google™Earth Options/Preferences can set display for ‘meters, kilometers’ instead of the default ‘feet, miles’). Remember that any project area that bounds the sea will have a minimum elevation of zero.

Project Area (sq. km.): Option no. 1: Collect this number from project publication or publicity. Note that this figure refers to the ground area under study, not a simple rectangle that encloses the maximum extent of the project. Option no. 2: As noted in ‘Project Vertices’ above, open the .kml file of the project's boundary polygon in GE-Path ( http://www.sgrillo.net/googleearth/gepath.htm). Under ‘Area/Perimeter’ at the lower left, choose ‘Calculate Area’, and make sure the area unit is square kilometers. Choose 1 Decimal place for precision. Click ‘Don't save the kml file. Show area and perimeter only’. Finally, select ‘Run’ in the top-bar Menu, and the calculated area will display.

Source of Map Data: Indicate the author-date form of the bibliography entry or cite the website where the map used to identify the project boundaries was found. Cite ‘[name], pers. comm., [date]’ if the Principal Investigators provided the map directly. If the Project Vertices and Area are estimated from published descriptions rather than from a map, note ‘Estimated’ in this space.

  Chronological Coverage:
 
 

Period, Start Date and End Date: This section does not prescribe any universal system of chronological periods and associated dates. Rather, it tries to convey chronological periods as defined and studied by each project. Users can search by years or by periods; period ranges will be defined, as broadly as possible, by simply taking the minimum and maximum ranges of dates used for those periods by all projects in the database collectively. MAGIS errs towards inclusivity.

Enter periods and chronological ranges as published or noted by the project publications. Some projects only use period names (e.g., ‘Middle Bronze Age’, ‘Classical’, or ‘Early Roman’), with no years specified; others do not use period names, but only date ranges; still others indicate both. Provide as much detail as the publications provide. If the project has a gazetteer, that is often a good place to start.

As the entry page requests, use negative values (e.g. -350) for B.C. / B.C.E. dates, and positive values for A.D. / C.E. dates. One may add as many periods as necessary by clicking the ‘Add 1 Period’, ‘Add 4 Periods’, or ‘Add 10 Periods’ buttons at the left.

  Methodology and Special Studies:
 
 

Methodology
In this section MAGIS tries to convey, insofar as possible, the methodologies that the project publications state for themselves. MAGIS does not offer ‘standard definitions’ for these methodologies, because scholars do not consistently define or employ these terms. MAGIS therefore aims at brevity and some fuzziness in its characterizations of them. Accordingly, this metadata is included for informational purposes; it cannot really be compared across projects in a meaningful way. What could be done, however, is to compile what researchers say is their definition of such-and-such a methodology or procedure, thereby building a range of possibility for its definition during any future establishment of Best Practices. Many projects use various and overlapping methodologies within their overall research strategy; therefore, check all that apply. Sources consulted in devising these characterizations especially include: Alcock, Susan, 1993, Graecia Capta, Cambridge, 36-37; Mattingly, David, 2000, “Methods of collection, recording and quantification,” in R. Francovich and H. Patterson (eds.), Extracting meaning from ploughsoil assemblages, Oxbow, 5-15. Check all that apply.

Approach: This section is concerned with how one plans to search for evidence on the ground, not with the actual collection of that evidence.

Extensive / Intensive: Extensive Survey tends to have broader geographic coverage of the entire study area at lower resolution (it finds highly-visible sites through reconnaissance, local informants, etc.). If Systematic, fieldwalkers may be spaced at substantial intervals (e.g., 100 m.); if Non-Systematic, extensive surveys may be informal or have inconsistent spacing. Intensive Survey tends to employ high-resolution inspection of smaller, discrete geographic sub-units of the study area (see Collection Unit, below), and finds less-obvious patterns of human activity.

Systematic / Non-Systematic: A Systematic approach imposes a consistent procedural template for searching the study area. A Non-Systematic approach searches in an ad-hoc fashion.

Site Survey / Siteless Survey: Site Survey has the ‘site’ (however that is defined) as the basic unit of inspection, classification, comparison and analysis. Siteless survey looks at levels and patterns of evidence for human activity across the landscape without attempting to define one or more threshold-levels for evidence at which inspection, recording, classification, comparison and analysis are suddenly triggered.

Diachronic / Temporally Bounded: A diachronic survey does not limit its inquiry chronologically, but is concerned with all periods of human activity in the study area up to (though sometimes including) the modern age (usually meaning after A.D. 1900). A temporally bounded survey puts limits, narrow or broad, upon its periods of inquiry.

Spatial Sampling (off-site): This section is concerned with how one organizes and limits the search for evidence on the ground across the entire study-area, not within any particular ‘site’.

Full Coverage: The search and collection methodology is carried out across the entire study area.

Random Sample: A predefined percentage of the study area is chosen for search and collection by one of several methods for achieving randomness.

Stratified Random Sample: This method divides the study area into one or more sets of topographic, environmental or other zones which the researchers want represented in the study. It then randomly selects portions of those zones for search and collection.

Deliberate Sample: Non-random. A predefined percentage of the study area is chosen for search and collection according to the researchers’ particular interests.

Fieldwalker Spacing (avg. width in m.): The distance between persons collecting evidence on the ground if some kind of parallel linear fieldwalking is employed.

No Regular Fieldwalking: No parallel linear fieldwalking is employed.

Artifact Collection: This section is concerned with how one collects evidence on the ground within the sampling and approach parameters described above, and within the collection units noted below. There may be overlap between these.

Total: All artifacts and ecofacts discovered are collected and processed.

Sample: A predefined percentage of the artifacts and ecofacts discovered in a given collection area are collected and processed, often, but not always, by random method.

Diagnostic: Only items discovered to be diagnostic (however that is defined) of variables such as material, shape, function or date are collected and processed.

Grab: A non-systematic and usually quick collection strategy that often aims for diagnostics, and may be combined with a systematic sampling strategy.

Click / Pick: ‘Click’ means counting but not collecting artifacts off the surface; ‘Pick’ means collection and transport of the artifacts for processing.

Counting: Counts are made of artifacts and ecofacts collected and/or processed.

Weighing: Artifacts and ecofacts collected and/or processed are weighed.

Collection Unit: Defined units within the spatial sample where evidence is actually collected. Collection may take place in lump fashion across the unit, or by using, for instance, transects within the collection unit.

Tract (__ x __ m.): A primary collection unit that tends to be rectilinear and of consistent dimensions. May be superimposed over modern fields.

Modern Field: A primary collection unit defined by field or property boundaries in place at the time of collection.

Site: A primary collection unit, however it is specifically defined by the project. It usually indicates a place containing enough of, or a certain kind of, evidence such that it merits special interest and investigation. Often becomes a unit of analysis as well as of collection.

Transect: A linear corridor for a fieldwalker across a primary collection unit.

Structure: Often used as a unit in architectural surveys.

Scatter / Artifact: A unit often employed in Siteless surveys; more commonly used for pre-Neolithic surveys or periods.

Geolocation:

Basemaps: From project publications or publicity, note the highest resolution of the basemaps used in carrying out the survey.

GPS: From project publications or publicity, note whether GPS (Global Positioning Systems) points collected were uncorrected (raw) or differentially corrected, either in real-time or by post-processing.

GIS: Has the project constructed and/or used a GIS (Geographic Information System) for the survey?

Other Methodologies Used: list as indicated in project publications.

 
 

Special Studies This is also an informational section. Check all the boxes for special studies that the project is carrying out. This describes what kinds of work a project is doing, so that, for instance, experts in epigraphy or paleobotany can sift out projects with material relevant to their interests. Brief statements of clarification follow; all are assumed to relate to the study area and period(s) of concern to a particular project.

Artifacts:

Architecture: Plans, cross-sections, elevations or reconstructions of sites or buildings; surveys of architectural elements, etc.

Ceramics: Any formal pottery studies, whether traditional shape/ware catalogues, x-ray diffraction analysis, clay source analysis, etc.

Lithics: Studies of stone tools, both ground and flaked, and/or working debris.

Coins: Studies of coins recovered by the project. Numismatics.

Metal: Studies of metal artifacts, and/or metal ore mining or processing.

Glass: Studies of glass artifacts and/or glass working or production.

Terracotta: Studies of terracotta artifacts and/or terracotta production.

Epigraphy: Studies of inscriptions -- carved, scratched, drawn or painted -- on any material.

Iconography: Studies focused on the forms, styles, signs and symbols contained in art.

Environment:

Geology: Studies of underlying rock structures and formations.

Geomorphology: Studies of changes in the geology over time, particularly during the more recent period of human presence.

Soil Studies: Studies of soil composition, formation, fertility, and changes over time.

Stone/Mineral Resources: Studies of the extraction and movement of stone or mineral resources in or through the study area.

Hydrology: Studies of the availability, modification, and/or exploitation of water resources.

Climatology: Studies of climate regimes and patterns over time.

Paleobotany: Studies of plants, either domesticated or wild.

Dendrochronology: Studies of tree-ring sequences from, or relevant to, the study area, for purposes of chronological or environmental study.

Faunal Osteology: Studies of animal bones, either domesticated or wild.

Agriculture: Studies of ancient, recent or current agricultural practices or patterns.

People:

Ritual Studies: Studies of religion, ritual, or cult: their practices, objects, places, etc.

Mortuary Studies: Studies of the treatment of deceased humans (e.g., cemeteries and tombs, including studies of bones as well as burials and their attributes).

Population Data: Demographic studies (population size, composition, distribution, etc.).

Ethnography/Ethnology: Studies of the different cultural and/or genetic groups that once occupied and/or presently occupy the study area.

Written Sources: Studies of the written historical sources from, or relating to, the study area, in any language, but usually written prior to A.D. 1900.

Cultural Resource Management: Studies concerned with the administration and maintenance of cultural heritage resources in the area, including threats to the integrity of those resources such as looting or development.

Remote Sensing:

Satellite Imagery: Imagery on any wavelength recorded by space-bound cameras.

Aerial Photography: Imagery on any wavelength recorded by planes, helicopters, kites, balloons, etc.

Geoprospection: Non-destructive techniques for detecting cultural material underground, such as ground-penetrating radar, magnetometry, resistivity, etc.

Other Special Studies: List as indicated in project publications or publicity.

Primary Research Questions: Either cite such questions as articulated clearly in project publications or publicity, or characterize as best is possible exactly what problems the project is trying to solve. What are its practitioners trying to find out?

Excavation: If any excavations took place during the survey or resulted from the survey, check this box.

  Environmental Parameters:
 
 

These are basic fields. Any project area might cover multiple geologies, topographies and even climatic zones. Select all that apply. To select multiple options in a list, use command-click on a Macintosh and use control-click on a PC.

Geology: Major rock types present in the project area: igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary. See: http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/AskGeoMan/geoQuerry13.html for a basic explanation of these major rock types.

Topography: Major landforms present in the study area:

Alluvial Plain: A plain formed by river action and deposition.

Coastal Plain: A plain located between uplands and the seacoast.

Continental Plain: A broad area of largely flat land separated from the sea.

Delta: A fan-shaped transitional area of outflow where a river meets the sea.

Desert: A dry area that receives an average of less than 25 cm of rainfall per year.

Gorge: A declivity cut deeply through the landscape by a river.

Hills: An area of natural elevations smaller, shorter and gentler than mountains (usually less than ca. 300 m. high).

Island: An area of land surrounded on all sides by water.

Isthmus: A generally narrow strip of land connecting two much larger landforms.

Lakeshore: Land of any elevation adjacent to a lake.

Mountains: An area of natural elevations larger, taller and steeper than hills (usually more than ca. 300 m. high).

Peninsula: An area of land, small or large, that juts into water.

Plateau: An elevated, relatively flat area of land.

River Valley: The land adjacent to a river as it cuts down through significant elevation.

Steppe: Semi-arid grassland plains.

Underwater: For surveys conducted below the surface of any body of water.

Upland Basin: A flat area of high elevation, surrounded by mountains.

Urban: For surveys conducted within population centers, ancient or modern.

Wadi/Oued: A dry river valley that carries water during periods of heavy rain.

Wetlands: Areas holding standing water much of the year, e.g. marshes and swamps.

Climate: MAGIS uses the Troll-Paffen system of climate classification. Also reference: http://www.klimadiagramme.de/Frame/troll.html. Use the reference map to determine the climate zone for the project area. The following zones operate in the MAGIS area:

  • III: Cool-temperate Zones
    • III.1: Highly oceanic climates with very mild winters
    • III.2: Oceanic climates with mild winters
    • III.3: Sub-oceanic climates with mild to moderately cold winters
    • III.4: Sub-continental climates with cold winters
    • III.7: Humid-and-warm summer climates with moderately cold, but dry winters
    • III.9: Humid steppe climates with cold winters and 6 or more humid months
    • III.10: Steppe climates with cold winters, arid summers and less than 6 months of humidity
  • IV: Warm-temperate sub-tropical Zones
    • IV.1: Dry-summer Mediterranean climates with humid winters
    • IV.2: Dry-summer steppe climates with humid winters
    • IV.5: Semi-desert and desert climates without hard winters
    • IV.7: Permanently humid climates with hot summers and a maximum of precipitation in summer
  • V. Tropical Zone
    • V.5: Tropical semi-desert and desert climates with less than 2 humid and more than 10 arid months: tropical semi-deserts and deserts.
  • Climatic Altitudes of Mountains

  Bibliography: (Included on Data Submission Page/Separated from Data Entry Page)
 
 

Collect and format, according to the instructions on the data submission/data entry page, all bibliography reporting on the project.

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Send questions, comments and/or corrections to: CGMA Last Updated: March 21, 2006