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Detailed Project Description

General Information

ID (CGMA ID):
GR117
Project Name:
The Sphakia Survey
Project Description:
Using a multidisciplinary approach, this project reconstructs human activity in this remote and rugged area from the time of the first arrivals ca. 3000 BC until the end of the Ottoman rule in AD 1900, as well as the human-landscape interactions in the broad environmental and altitudinal range. They also explore the relationships between coastal and inland settlements, along with possible connections between Sphakia and areas in the north.
Project Websites:
Project Sponsors:
Social Sciences and Humanities and the Natural Sci
ISTAP
Arts and Humanities Resource Board University of O
Institute for Aegean Prehistory New York
Craven Committee
Dates of Operation:
From: 1986     To: 1999
Project Languages:
English
Metadata Sources:

Geographical Data

Zone:
Eastern Mediterranean
Country:
Greece
Province:
Crete
Location:
Sphakia
Ancient Regions:

Principal Investigators

Investigator Name:
Lucia Nixon (universtiy Of New Brunswick, St. John
Address:
E-mail:
Phone / Fax:
Investigator Name:
Jennifer Moody (university Of Minnesota)
Address:
E-mail:
Phone / Fax:

Project Map

Elevation Range:
Minimum: Not Specified
Maximum: 2452
Project Area:
472 km2
Map Data Source:
Google™ Earth File:
Project Location:
Project Vertices:

Chronological Coverage

Period:
Prehistoric
Years:
From: BC 3500     To: BC 1050
Period:
Graeco-Roman
Years:
From: BC 1050     To: 700
Period:
Byzantine-Venetian-Turkish
Years:
From: 700     To: 1900

Methodology

Approach:
Extensive
Intensive
Systematic
Non-Systematic
Site Survey
Siteless Survey
Diachronic
Temporally Bounded
Spatial Sampling (off-site):
Full Coverage
Random Sample
Stratified Random Sample
Deliberate Sample
Fieldwalker Spacing
 (average width = 1015  m)
No Regular Fieldwalking
Artifact Collection:
Total
Sample
Diagnostic
Grab
Click
Pick
Counting
Weighing
Collection Unit:
Tract   (0 m x 0 m)
Modern Field
Site
Transect
Structure
Scatter/Artifact
Geolocation:
Basemap more detailed than 1:10K
GPS Uncorrected
Basemap 1:10K to 1:50K
GPS Differentially Corrected
Basemap less detailed than 1:50K
GIS
Other:

Special Studies

Artifacts:
Architecture
Ceramics
Lithics
Coins
Metal
Glass
Terracotta
epigraphy
Iconography
Environment:
Geology
Geomorphology
Soil Studies
Stone/Mineral Resources
Hydrology
Climatology
Paleobotany
Dendrochronology
Faunal Osteology
Agriculture
People:
Ritual Studies
Mortuary Studies
Population Data
Ethnography/Ethnology
Written Resources
Cultural Resource Management
Remote Sensing:
Satellite Imagery
Aerial Photography
Geoprospection
Other:
Primary Questions:
-When people first arrived on Crete -Learn about the environment and vegetation of Sphakia both before and after people arrived -How were Sphakia and Khania connected during the Minoan Period -Possible travel paths across White Mountain -What determines inland-coastal fluctuations in settlements, external or internal factors -How does coastal linking affect the growth and development of settlements and the connections between them
Excavation:
YES

Environmental Parameters

Geology:
 Igneous
 Metamorphic
 Sedimentary
Geology Other:
Topography:
 Alluvial Plain
 Coastal Plain
 Continental Plain
 Delta
 Desert
 Gorge
 Hills
 Island
 Isthmus
 Lakeshore
 Mountains
 Peninsula
 Plateau
 River Valley
 Steppe
 Underwater
 Upland Basin
 Urban
 Wadi/Oued
 Wetlands
Topography Other:
mountains, gorges, mountain desert, peninsula
Climate:
 Climatic Altitudes of Mountains
 Dry-summer Mediterranean
 Dry-summer Steppe
 Highly Oceanic
 Humid and warm summer
 Humid Steppe
 Oceanic
 Permanently Humid
 Semi-desert and Desert
 Steppe
 Sub-Oceanic
 Tropical Semi-desert and Desert
Climate Other:

Bibliography

Entry 1:
Nixon, L.; Moody, J.; Rackham, O. (1988), "Archaeological Survey in Sphakia, Crete", Echos du monde classique, 32, 157-173
Entry 2:
Nixon, L.; Moody, J.; Rackham, O. (1988), "The Sphakia Survey", Bulletin of the Canadian Mediterranean Institute, 8, 12
Entry 3:
Nixon, L.; Moody, J.; Price, S.; Rackham, O. (1989), "Archaeological Survey in Sphakia, Crete", Echos du monde classique, 33, 201-215
Entry 4:
Nixon, L.; Moody, J.; Price, S.; Rackham, O.; Niniou-Kindeli, V. (1990), "Archaeological Survey in Sphakia, Crete", Echos du monde classique, 34, 213-220
Entry 5:
Nixon, L.; Moody, J.; Price, S.; Rackham, O. (1994), "Rural Settlement in Sphakia, Crete", Doukellis, P.; Mendoni, L., Structures rurales et societes antiques, Actes du colloque de Corfou 14-16 mai 1992, Annales litteraires de l'Universite de Besancon, Paris, Les Belles Lettres, 255-264
Entry 6:
Moody, J.; Nixon, L.; Price, S.; Rackham, O. (1998), "Surveying poleis and larger sites in Sphakia", Cavanagh, W.G.; Curtis, M., Post-Minoan Crete, BSA Studies 2, London, British School at Athens, 87-95
Entry 7:
Nixon, L.; Price, S.; Moody, J. (1999), Settlement Patterns in Mediaeval & Post-Mediaeval Sphakia: Issues from the Environmental, Archaeological, & Historical Evidence
NOTES: http://sphakia.classics.ox.ac.uk/bvtpaper.html
Entry 8:
Moody, J.; Robinson, H. Lewis (2000), "The Fabrics of Life in Sphakia", Pepragmena tou H'Diethnous Kretologikou Sunedriou, 349-357
Entry 9:
Nixon, L.; Price, S. (2001), "The diachronic analysis of pastoralism through comparative variables", Annual of the British School at Athens, 96, 395-424
Entry 10:
Nixon, L. (2001), "Seeing voices and changing relationships: Film, archaeological reporting, and the landscape of people in Sphakia", American Journal of Archaeology, 105, 77-97
NOTES: This article may be downloaded from http://www.ajaonline.org
Entry 11:
Moody, J.; Robinson, H. Lewis; Francis, J.; Nixon, L. (2003), "Ceramic fabric analysis and survey archaeology: The Sphakia Survey", Annual of the British School at Athens, 97, 171-200
Entry 12:
Nixon, Lucia; Price, Simon (2004), "Paper, video, internet: New technologies for research and teaching in archaeology", Lee, S., Designing and Developing for the Disciplines (Special Issue), Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 11
NOTES: This article may be downloaded at http://www-jime.open.ac.uk/2004/17/nixon-2004-17-t.html
Entry 13:
Moody, J. (2004), "Western Crete in the Bronze Age: A survey of the evidence", Day, L.P.; Mook, M.S.; Muhly, J.D., Crete Beyond the Palaces: Proceedings of the Crete 2000 Conference, Philadelphia, INSTAP Academic Press, 247-264
Entry 14:
Price, S.; Nixon, L. (2005), "Ancient Greek agricultural terraces: Evidence from texts and archaeological survey", American Journal of Archaeology, 109, 665-694
Entry 15:
Nixon, L. (2005), "Paper, video, website: New technologies and the Sphakia Survey", Kennell, N.M.; Tomlinson, J.E., Ancient Greece at the Turn of the Millenium: Recent Work and Future Perspectives, Athens, Canadian Archaeological Instit, 81-95




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